The Early History of Artificial Intelligence in China (1950s – 1980s)

In recent years, China has become one of the global hubs for innovation in AI. How did China become one of the world’s leaders of AI? This paper intends to explore some early histories of cybernetics and AI in China from the 1950s to 1980s, providing a context where China’s AI research started to unfold. Also, this paper examines how political ideologies, diplomacy, economic policies, and other social dimensions affect cybernetics and AI in China. [……]

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Symbolism vs. Connectionism: A Closing Gap in Artificial Intelligence

AI was born symbolic and logic. The pioneers of AI have formalized many elegant theories, hypotheses, and applications, such as PSSH and expert systems. From the 1980s, the pendulum swung toward connectionist, a paradigm inspired by the neural connections in brains. With the growing amount of accessible data and ever stronger computing power, connectionist models gain considerable momentum in recent years. This new approach seems to solve many problems in symbolic AI but raises many new issues at the same time. Which one is better to account for human cognition and more promising for AI? There’s no consensus reached. However, despite their vast difference, people began to explore how to integrate them together. Hybrid systems have been proposed and experimented. Other people see them residing at different levels of one unified hierarchical structure. In recent years, it is increasingly realized that the gap is closing, simply because there’s no gap at all from the beginning. The debate is dying down, opening up new opportunities for future hybrid paradigms.[……]

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Privileged Hands: A Scientific Life Book Cover Privileged Hands: A Scientific Life
Geerat J. Vermeij
Henry Holt and Co.
August 15, 1996

His fingers move across the surface of a shell, feeling the ridges and contours. One of the most accomplished evolutionary biologists of our time and the world's leading authority on an ancient "arms race" among mollusks, Dr. Vermeij is blind.


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The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks Book Cover The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks
Rebecca Skloot
Broadway Books

Her name was Henrietta Lacks, but scientists know her as HeLa. She was a poor black tobacco farmer whose cells—taken without her knowledge in 1951—became one of the most important tools in medicine, vital for developing the polio vaccine, cloning, gene mapping, and more.

黑人女性Henrietta Lacks于20世纪50年代死于宫颈癌,然而,如果没有她,也许也没有你和我。她用于活检的宫颈细胞发生了一点奇异的变异,使得细胞可以无限增殖下去,这就是人类历史上第一个不死的细胞系——海拉细胞系。[……]

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How We Got to Now:今天从时间与智慧的洪荒中而来

How We Got to Now: Six Innovations That Made the Modern World Book Cover How We Got to Now: Six Innovations That Made the Modern World
Steven Johnson
Riverhead Books
Reprint edition (September 22, 2015)

From the New York Times–bestselling author of Where Good Ideas Come From and Everything Bad Is Good for You, a new look at the power and legacy of great ideas.


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Ebola: The Natural and Human History of a Deadly Virus Book Cover Ebola: The Natural and Human History of a Deadly Virus
David Quammen
Medicine & Health Sciences
W. W. Norton & Company
1 edition (October 20, 2014)

“A frightening and fascinating masterpiece of science reporting that reads like a detective story.” —Walter Isaacson


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